|Scientific name||Amblypelta nitida|
|Description of adult||Adult bugs are green-brown and about 15 mm long. When disturbed, they may fly away, somersault to lower branches or quickly hide on the plant behind fruit or under leaves. The fruit-spotting bug is usually a slightly darker green than the banana-spotting bug .|
|Immature stages||Fruit-spotting bug eggs are 1.7 mm long and somewhat triangular with rounded corners in cross-section, pale green in colour when first laid, turning darker with a slight opalescence as they age. They are laid singly on flowers, fruit or foliage. The bugs pass through five nymphal stages before they become adults. The first instar is green and black, and has an ant-like appearance. Later instars are orange-brown or green.
They have prominent antennae and two scent gland openings on the upper surface of the abdomen. Wing buds appear in the third instar. A distinctive feature of the nymphs of both fruit-spotting species is the second last segment of the antenna, which is black and conspicuously flattened. The scent gland openings on the abdomen of A. lutescens are more prominent because they are highlighted with white circles.
|Life history||An adult female lays only a few eggs each day, but during its life may lay more than 150 eggs. The eggs hatch in 6-7 days and development from egg to adult averages around 42 days in summer. The insects pass through 3-4 generations a year: one in spring, one or two in summer and one in autumn. Adults of the autumn generation survive the winter and begin a new generation when temperatures increase in spring. The adults tend to infest certain groups of trees forming ‘hot spots’ in orchards.|
|Distribution||A native insect that occur throughout coastal and sub-coastal areas of Queensland. It is common on the Atherton Tableland but relatively rare on the coast north of Gympie.|
|Host range||Fruit-spotting bug is a pest of avocados, guavas, macadamia nuts, pecan nuts, lychees, mangoes and many exotic tropical and subtropical tree crops.|
|Damage||Major, frequent pests in certain areas, especially where orchards are situated close to alternative native or ornamental hosts.
Both adults and nymphs feed by piercing fruit and sucking the juice from the tissue. They insert their long mouthparts into the fruit and in feeding, exude saliva containing enzymes that break down the cells of green fruit such as avocado. This causes deep-set breakdown of significant areas of tissue.
In lychees and longans, the losses result when fruit drops because the bugs have fed on the developing seed.
Brown lesions on the seed and small black ‘pin pricks’ on the internal white surface of the skin are evidence of bug feeding. In excess of 90% of green fruit may be lost in heavy infestations. Mature fruit is less attractive to the bugs but may be damaged. This fruit does not fall and although the damage may not be detected at harvest, it has little effect on fruit quality.
SOURCE: Queensland Government Website – June 2016
African Boxthorn Lycium ferocissimum
THIS PLANT HAS BEEN DECLARED A WEED OF NATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE
Origin: Native to South Africa.
Flowers/Seedhead: Flowers: Singly or in pairs at the leaf-stem junction. White with purplish throat, about 1 cm diameter; 5-petalled; fragrant. Flowers to 12 mm long with male part of the flower (stamen) projecting to 4 mm past the petals. Flowers mostly summer but some flowering throughout year.
Description: Much branched shrub to 6 m high. Leaves fleshy, elliptic to 4 cm long (see photo). Berry to 1 cm wide on short drooping stalk. Seeds 2.5 mm long, dull yellow.
Distinguishing features: Distinguished by rigid branches with side branches mostly longer than 1 cm, leafy and ending in a stout spine, and berries that are globe- to egg-shaped and ripening red with up to 70 seeds.
Dispersal: Spread by seed. Fruit is commonly eaten by foxes and birds and viable seeds are excreted. Often forms dense stands as a result of these animals feeding and remaining in the vicinity of fruiting boxthorn. Shoots readily from broken roots.
Confused With: Other Lycium species. Native Australian Boxthorn Lycium australe grows in subsaline soil at the edge of salt lakes and claypans in arid areas of Australia but this species has narrow leaves usually less than 5 mm long. Chinese Boxthorn Lycium barbarum has shorter leafless spines and ovate leaves with an acute tip.
Source: Weed.org.au Website 16th May 2016
Rats and mice
In Queensland, there could be up to twenty-four native species of rodents. However, it is the three introduced species that have become such pests to society:
- Brown Rat (or Sewer Rat): a burrower, is thick set and brown in colour.
- Roof Rat: a climber, is slender and black in colour.
- House Mouse: can be distinguished by its small size.
The presence of rats and mice in buildings can result in food spoilage and contamination, physical damage caused by gnawing which can sometimes lead to costly fires, and the transmission of diseases to humans.
The most common disease transmitted by rats is Salmonellosis which is spread when food is consumed by humans which has been contaminated by excreta or saliva of rats.
In Queensland, introduced rats have been associated with the spread of Plague (the last outbreak being in 1923), Weils Disease, Rat Bite Fever, Murine Typhus and a form of Meningitis, all of which may result in serious illness or death. (Note: Plague and Murine Typhus are transmitted by rat fleas.)
How do you detect rodents?
- damage to food containers or droppings
- rat runs (lines in the dust or greasy smears on walls and fences worn by the rat)
- disappearance of food
- sounds during the night
- gnaw marks or burrows.
(Source: City Of Gold Coast Website – April 2016)
THIS PLANT HAS BEEN DECLARED A WEED OF NATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE
Alternative Name(s): Mesquite, Prosopis limensis, Cloncurry Prickle Bush
Family: Fabaceae or Mimosaceae.
Origin: Native to north-western South America.
Flowers/Seedhead: In greenish to yellow cylindrical spikes 5–12 cm long, on stalks arising from the base of the leaf (axil). Flowers predominantly spring to early summer.
Description: Tree or shrub to 10 m high. Leaflets grey-green. Pod 7–16 cm long, about 1 cm wide with 10–30 seeds, pods straight or slightly curved, margins parallel or with slight depressions between seeds.
Distinguishing features: Distinguished by often being single stemmed; paired stout spines develop near leaf base; spines 0.4 cm to more than 6 cm long, sometimes absent; leaves twice divided (bipinnate), primary divisions (pinnae) in 2–4 (rarely 1) pairs (see photo), leaflets to 10 mm long and to 3 mm wide in 7–15 pairs, hairy to almost hairless and pods hairless.
Dispersal: Animal (mainly) and water dispersed seed.
Confused With: Other Prosopis species in Australia, although they are usually multistemmed and have 1 or 2 (rarely 3) pairs of pinnae.
Source of material: http://www.weeds.org.au/
In the recent years of the down economy, we have witnessed more people resorting to a do it yourself method of getting rid of bugs. There are certain situations where we agree that do it yourself is a good alternative to hiring professionals like The Lethal Gold Coast Pest Control Team. If you spot a single bug such as a fly, spider, or ant, there is usually no need for Lethal Pest Control to come to your home. But if you spot a rodent, a bed bug, or any other insect that can cause damage to your family or your home, it is necessary to call The Lethal Team to get the job done right and effectively.
There are certain things that need to be considered when deciding to DIY or Book in Lethal Gold Coast Pest Control:
o DIY – A trip to the store and the purchase of chemicals is typically less expensive than hiring a pest control company.
o The Professional Lethal Service – Although the initial investment is more expensive with a professional, it may end up being the cheaper alternative. If the in store pesticides are not effective they may result in the growth of your pest control problem. Continuing to buy in store products can get expensive. Not to mention the potential damage to your home thatpests can cause. Lethal Pest Control does offer packages to suit different budgets and services that you may require. If you are a pensioner or money is an issue, please talk to us, as we have a pest plan tailored to suit all budgets & circumstances.
o DIY – When doing it yourself, you can go to the store, purchase the pest control product, and apply it at your own convenience.
o The Professional Lethal Service – It can be a pain to find a time that is convenient for both you and a pest control company to meet at your home for a treatment. More often than not, this is at the inconvenience of the customer. However, Lethal Pest Control will work with the homeowner to schedule the best time for them.
o DIY – The instructions are on the label. Not only can information be found on the label but it is very easy to go to the internet and do a research on the particular product or insect. Be sure that all instructions are followed exactly as listed on the package.
o The Professional Lethal Service– Our Lethal Team will be able to quickly identify and treat your problem. They are also able to answer any questions that you have about prevention or other issues that you are experiencing. Their experience and expertise can keep your home and family healthier than just reading the instructions on a label.
o DIY – Chemicals of any kind can carry a risk. Applying chemicals that you are not knowledgeable about could potentially cause harm to humans, pets, or plants in the area. This is not to scare you but to remind you that we cannot stress enough the importance to read all instructions and follow all directions listed on the product label.
o The Professional Lethal Service – By hiring the experienced and knowledgeable Lethal Pest Control Team, the risk is removed from the homeowner. Be sure to read our Customer Reviews.
o DIY – For small pest problems, store bought exterminating products can oftentimes be effective. For a bigger infestation, it can be more difficult with store bought products. Pests are adaptable creatures and can get become immune to certain chemicals after a certain amount of time.
o The Professional Lethal Service – Lethal Pest Control has up to date information and products to treat your infestation.
o DIY – Depending on the store and product, you can return a product. However you do need to check your local store return policies before purchasingbecause returning it may not always be the case.
o The Professional Lethal Service – Just ask The Lethal Team about their policies before hiring them to treat your home. We are up front and will not try and hide anything from you. We are here to help you with your pest control problem.
When trying to decide if you should tackle your pest control problem, consider the list above. For a small infestation, do it yourself is a good option that can be inexpensive. For larger infestations or a continuing problem, save yourself the time, hassle, and money and call The professionals at Lethal Pest Control on The Gold Coast. For weekly information and facts on Pests and Weed Management issues visit our Lethal Pest Control Blog On The Gold Coast.
It can be difficult to know if a bite from a spider is dangerous or not. This post explains the best first aid treatment depending on the type of spider involved.
It’s important to be aware that bites from spiders can cause a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) in some people. Learn more about first aid treatment for severe allergic reactions in the ‘anaphylaxis’ section below.
Different types of spider bites
Spider bites are best considered in three medically relevant groups: big black spiders, redback spiders and all other spiders.
Big black spiders are funnel web spiders and any large black-looking spiders that may be a funnel web spider. Patients bitten by big black spiders must be managed as a medical emergency.
Redback spiders are fairly easy to identify and their bites do not cause rapidly developing or life-threatening effects but many cause significant pain and systemic effects.
All other spiders in Australia are more or less harmless. If the victim has not been bitten by a big black spider or a redback spider they can be reassured and no further treatment is required.
Funnel web spider
The funnel web spider which is found on the east coast of Australia is the most venomous spider in the world. It’s a medium to large spider varying from one to five cm. Male funnel web spiders are more lightly built than female ones. Their body colour can vary from black to brown and the bite from a funnel web spider can be extremely painful.
First aid for a big black spider’s bite
Bites from a funnel web or mouse spider can be very dangerous. Provide emergency care including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if needed. Calm the person and call triple zero (000) for an ambulance.
Steps to take if someone gets bitten:
- apply a pressure immobilisation bandage
- keep the victim from moving around
- keep the bitten limb down
- bandage the limb from the area of the bite to the hand or foot, then back up to the body
- immobilise the limb by splinting if possible
- tell the victim to keep calm
- do not move them at all
- wait for the ambulance.
Other spider bites
For all other spider bites, including from red-backed spiders, apply a cold compress or ice pack directly over the bite site to help relieve the pain. Seek medical assistance if further symptoms or signs of infection develop.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
Read these articles for an overview of:
For printable charts, see St John Ambulance Australia’s first aid resuscitation procedures (DRSABCD) poster, as well as their quick guide to first aid management of bites and stings.
Pressure immobilisation bandage
A pressure immobilisation bandage is recommended for anyone bitten by a funnel web or mouse spider.
This involves firmly bandaging the area of the body involved, such as the arm or leg, and keeping the person calm and still until medical help arrives. If possible, mark the site of the bite on the bandage with a pen.
A guide to pressure immobilisation bandages can be found on the Australian Venom Research Unit (AVRU) website.
Spider bites can be painful. Occasionally some people have a severe allergic reaction to being bitten or stung.
In cases of severe allergic reaction, the whole body can react within minutes to the bite or sting which can lead to anaphylactic shock. Anaphylactic shock is very serious and can be fatal.
Symptoms of anaphylactic shock may include:
- swelling of the mouth, throat or tongue
- difficulty swallowing
- difficulty breathing or shortness of breath or wheezing
- difficulty talking
- a rash that may appear anywhere on the body
- itching – usually around your eyes, ears, lips, throat or roof of the mouth
- flushing (feeling hot and red)
- stomach cramps, feeling or being sick
- feeling weak
- collapsing or falling unconscious.
Call triple zero (000) for an ambulance. If the person has a ‘personal action plan’ to manage a known severe allergy, they may need assistance to follow their plan. This may include administering adrenaline to the person via an autoinjector (such as an Epipen®) if one is available.
The Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy recommends that for a severe allergic reaction adrenaline is the initial treatment. For further information, visit the Choosing Wisely Australia website.
The St John Ambulance Australia first aid fact sheet for bites and stings can be found on their website. For more information on anaphylaxis, including setting up a personal action plan, go to www.allergy.org.au.
Not sure what to do next?
If you are still concerned about your spider bite, why not use healthdirect’s online Symptom Checker to get advice on when to seek medical attention.
The Symptom Checker guides you to the next appropriate healthcare steps, whether it’s self care, talking to a health professional, going to a hospital or calling triple zero (000).